A growing number of missional thinkers continue to use the concept of “incarnational ministry.” Two notable scholars raise interesting questions about whether or not this term is useful. For instance, Eckhard J. Schnabel writes,
“I submit that the use of the term ‘incarnational’ is not very helpful to describe the task of authentic Christian missionary work. The event of the coming of Jesus into the world is unique, unrepeatable and incomparable, making it preferable to use other terminology to express the attitudes and behavior that Paul describes in 1 Cor 9:19-23. The Johannine missionary commission in Jn 20:21 does not demand an ‘incarnation’ of Jesus’ disciples but rather their obedience, unconditional commitment and robust activity in the service of God and in the power of the Holy Spirit. It is precisely John who describes the mission of Jesus as unique: Jesus is the ‘only’ Son (Jn 1:14, 18; 3:14, 18), he is preexistent (Jn 1:1, 14), his relationship to the Father is unparalleled (Jn 1:14, 18). For John, it is not the manner of Jesus’ coming into the world, the Word becoming flesh, the incarnation, that is a ‘model’ for believers; rather, it is the nature of Jesus’ relationship to the Father who sent him into the world, which is one of obedience to and dependence upon the Father … The terms ‘contextualization’ or ‘inculturation’ certainly are more helpful.” (Early Christian Mission Pt 2: Paul and the Early Church, 1574-75)
Similarly, Andreas Köstenberger reasons that,
“The term that I think captures the nature of our mission according to John’s gospel is “representational.” That is, we are to re-present the message of redemption and eternal life in Jesus on the basis of the finished cross-work and resurrection of Christ. Clearly, John’s Gospel presents Jesus’ incarnation as utterly unique (read the introduction, 1:1–18!), so it is hard to conceive of John teaching an “incarnational model” in which the disciples share in Jesus’ incarnation in some way … The major implication from this kind of “representational” model, then, is that we are to focus on the gospel message, not the messengers, and pass that message on faithfully and accurately in our mission to the world.” ( source here).
So rather than “incarnational,” these two scholars suggest we think along the lines of “representational,” “contextual,” and “inculturational.” That’s a lot of “al’s” if you ask me! But I think their concerns are legitimate.
What do you think?
Luke is a pastor-theologian living in northern California, serving as a co-lead pastor with his life, Dawn, at the Red Bluff Vineyard. Father of five amazing kids, when Luke isn’t hanging with his family, reading or writing theology, he moonlights as a fly fishing guide for Confluence Outfitters. He blogs regularly at LukeGeraty.com and regularly contributes to his YouTube channel.
Couldn’t agree more!
Agreed. I have been questioning the “incarnational” approach myself for a while. In a similar vein, I have become uncomfortable with terms like “building the Kingdom” or “expanding the Kingdom”. I am increasingly thinking that what Christians do instead is “announce the Kingdom.” It seems that it is God Himself who builds and expands the Kingdom. Just some thoughts.